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Naval Architecture

Naval Architecture

Naval Architecture Services

Naval Architecture

Brookes Bell’s experienced Naval Architects provide a wide range of Naval Architecture Services to Marine and Offshore Clients. With backgrounds ranging from Ship Design, Class and Regulatory Compliance, Shipbuilding and In-service Support, our Naval Architects can fulfil the specific and diverse needs of our Clients.


Our Naval Architects regularly carry out detailed structural assessments using a combination of traditional hand calculations and the latest advanced Finite Element Analysis (FEA) techniques. We utilise the latest techniques and an intelligent approach to ensure the correct methodology is employed in our assessments. Industry standard software such as ANSYS, FEMAP, MAESTRO and CODE ASTER are used where appropriate. Our Naval Architects have expertise in conducting a wide range of analysis types (including linear, non-linear, fatigue, buckling, dynamic etc.) and can assist on-site if required by the Client.

Through our knowledge and experience we can efficiently identify causation or areas of concern within structures. Based on our findings, we provide Clients with the best advice during damage repair or legal disputes and cost-effective performance enhancements for structural failures to avoid re-occurrence.


Brookes Bell Naval Architects have extensive experience in both Intact and Damage stability assessments on many different vessel types and are proficient in both deterministic stability standards such as IS 2008 and SOLAS'90, as well as more complex probabilistic stability standards such as SOLAS Regulation 25, IMO A.265 and SOLAS'2009. Our Naval Architects have carried our many conversion and floatability studies using both simulations and model testing to demonstrate performance and compliance.

Our Naval Architects were heavily involved in Ro-Pax and Ro-Ro conversions for the STOCKHOLM Agreement. Having contributed to over 100 conversion projects, we have an unrivalled knowledge and understanding of stability and seakeeping issues which may arise and more importantly, knowledge of the potential solutions thereby avoiding costly delays.

Using PROTEUS, our in-house flooding and seakeeping software, we can perform damage survivability assessments and forensically reconstruct vessel flooding incidents. The software accommodates detailed internal layouts and realistic failure/leakage of openings to simulate progressive flooding and predict the dynamic behaviour of vessels in a seaway to regular and irregular waves.

Manoeuvring & Seakeeping

Brookes Bell provides manoeuvring simulation services for port risk assessment projects and casualty investigations. Our in-house manoeuvring software BBSIM uses the latest research on manoeuvring in confined waterways and harbours to assess what-if scenarios for vessel performance in port, vessel collisions and to recreate historical accidents using witness statements or VDR data. Our CFD capability compliments BBSIM and can be used to provide more accurate manoeuvring simulations which account for specific hull forms and channel bathymetry and conditions.

Our in-house flooding and seakeeping software PROTEUS is used to simulate dynamic vessel behaviour in a seaway. Simulations consider motions in 6 degrees of freedom and can predict the influence of regular/irregular waves and wind loadings. Detailed motion characteristics for specific user defined locations can be output for passenger comfort analysis.

Regulatory advice

Through our experience in the approval process, Brookes Bell have developed good working relationships with various class societies and flag administrations, and we regularly advise clients with regards new build compliance and chartering/purchase disputes.

Brookes Bell have been involved in many regulatory development projects relating to safety and stability. Our involvement in the development of current and future regulations allows us to advice clients on future legislation which may impact their fleet operationally and from a cost perspective. This advice has proven invaluable for some clients when considering vessel conversions which can be designed to accommodate future regulation resulting in less long term impact on dockings and conversion costs.

Hull & Appendage Optimisation

Since the company’s inception, Brookes Bell Safety at Sea has offered innovative solutions to improve vessel performance and efficiency, often as part of its consulting on safety related projects. We were one of the first commercial firms to offer hull design using Computational Fluid Dynamics, an area of Naval Architecture that we continue to be at the forefront of.

Brookes Bell uses CFD analysis to improve vessel performance by optimising hull shapes and the position and shape of its appendages. As one of the first to offer this service, we continue to refine our processes and now use parametric modelling that allows a large number of design iterations to be tested in a matter of hours.

Comfort and Efficiency

Brookes Bell have extensive CFD experience in passenger comfort for wind and funnel odour assessments. Our experts have extensive experience in passenger comfort for wind and funnel odours. We were early pioneers of the use of CFD for this service and built up large amounts of expertise using advanced tools to develop novel solutions. The use of CFD for passenger comfort has become wide spread, and our experts regularly advise and assist owners, yards and consultancies in the application of this technology.

Brookes Bell have developed and applied dynamic energy modelling on marine systems since 2009 and now offer an integrated design support service that considers system redundancy as well as performance. Dynamic modelling of energy flows onboard a vessel is an efficient and inexpensive way of exploring multiple system configurations and their responses to varying loads. The methodology can be used in variety of applications, ranging from design optimisation, retrofitting or forensic investigations of powerless or blackout scenarios. Dynamic energy modelling can be implemented either using dedicated software packages or with the help of Brookes Bell’s add-on to our in-house software BBSAM.

Design Conversions, Upgrades

Brookes Bell Safety at Sea has been involved in numerous vessel conversions/upgrades where we have drawn on our combined expertise in various disciplines to provide clients with cost effective solutions. We have worked on a number of vessel types ranging from small ferries to large cruise liners, where we have looked at conversions dealing with aspects such as:

  • PAX increase
  • Cargo deadweight increase
  • Draught increase
  • Scrubber installation
  • Lengthening
  • Changes to stability regulations due to re-flagging
  • STOCKHOLM Agreement
  • Ducktail/Sponson installations

Alternative Design Assessments (ADA)

Brookes Bell Safety at Sea has accumulated significant experience in the assessment of alternative design and arrangements in accordance with the provisions of SOLAS and the respective IMO guidelines. Our expertise in design risk analysis, operational ship safety and ability to undertake engineering analysis in a multitude of disciplines allows us to provide efficient and robust input to the design team, when evaluating deviations from prescriptive requirements on behalf of ship designers, builders, owners or equipment manufacturers.

Drafting Services

To complement our Naval Architecture services, Brookes Bell also provide 2D CAD drafting and 3D CAD modelling services. Using in house knowledge and experience, our team can quickly and efficiently update or produce accurate drawings using industry standard software such as Autocad, Inventor and Rhino. We produce drawings to the level of detail required by our Clients or their use; typically sufficient for Class/Regulatory submission or yard manufacture. Drafting tasks include:

  • General arrangement drawings and capacity/tank plans
  • Damage control, fire/safety and evacuation plans
  • Structural steelwork drawings for vessel modifications/conversions
  • P&ID drawings for ship systems such as ballast or fuel systems
  • 3D to 2D drawings for hull or propeller offsets, which may include on site laser scanning (link to page)
  • Tolerance checks of 3D models against manufacturing drawings for propeller profiling
  • As built 3D models for clash detection when installing new/updated systems/components i.e ballast water treatment, NOx scrubbers etc
  • 3D concept designs/visualisations
  • Paper to CAD conversion for old drawings

Shipyard & Project Support

Brookes Bell have extensive ship and shipyard experience, built up over many incident and casualty attendances, as well as more routine visits for P&I Club condition surveys, operational draught surveys and Regulatory inclining experiments.

Shipyard and In-Service Support backgrounds ensure our team are comfortable acting in a variety of project support roles whilst being able to contribute effectively at a technical level. For ship repairs, conversions and wreck removal, roles typically include project management and client liaison, resourcing and planning, on site oversight of work parties, definition of repair scope of work and production of work procedures and safety assessments where required.